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Bantu is a general term for over different ethnic groups in Africafrom CameroonSouthern AfricaCentral Africato Eastern Africaunited by a common language Wgite the Bantu languages and in many Brazilian women White Plains New York NY common customs. How they spread throughout such a wide area has been the focus of much study and theorizing.
It is generally accepted that the Bantu-speaking peoples originated from West Africa around 4, years ago, although there is less consensus on the exact reasons for and course of their expansion.
Prior to that time, the southern half of Africa is believed to have been populated by Khoisan speaking people. After the Bantu expansionmany of the great kingdoms of South Africa were ruled by Bantu people, who tended to be highly resourceful and adaptable.
Their kingdoms traded with the Europeans as they started to colonize Africa; however, the Europeans pressured the existing Bantu populations to move. Although Africans from all over the coastal regions of West Africa were captured and taken as slaves to North America, the Bantu people were among the most numerous.Have Sex With Women In Overland Park
Bantu place names over a widespread area of Southern states reflect the presence of large numbers of Bantu, and indicate how Bantu Africans changed the landscape and culture of the white world which had enslaved them. Today, Bantu-speaking people are primarily found in RwandaAngolaBurundiZimbabweand South Africawith Brazilian women White Plains New York NY among other nations in the Southern part of Africa.
With the exception of those in Somaliabrought north as slaves in the nineteenth century and many of whom became refugees as a result of the unrest and civil war sincethe Bantu comprise a diverse but stable population spread throughout many countries in Africa. Bantu means "people" in many Bantu languages. Wilhelm Bleek first used the term "Bantu" in Adult dating Hulls Cove current sense in his book A Comparative Grammar of South African Languages, in which he hypothesized that a vast number of languages located across central, southern, eastern, and western Africa shared so many characteristics that they must be part of a single language group.
This basic thesis is still accepted Whjte some people today, although the theory has been widely challenged since it was proposed — not least because a language Brazilian women White Plains New York NY be spread by a relatively small number of human carriers. Black South Africans were at times officially called "Bantu" Nww the apartheid regime.
Today, however, Bantu is no longer in wide use as a description of black South African people. The Oxford Dictionary of South African English Brazllian its use in a racial context as obsolescent and offensive because of its strong association with white minority rule and the apartheid system. However, Bantu is used without pejorative connotations in other parts of Africa.
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The Bantu-speaking peoples of South Africa are roughly "divided" into four main groups: Common among the two Looking for fun during day saturday groups of the Nguni and the Sotho Plzins patrilineal societies, with which the leaders formed the socio-political units. Similarly, food acquisition was by cultivation and hunting. The most important differences were the strongly deviating languages, although both are Bantu languages, and the different settlement types and relationships.
With the Nguni, settlements were villages widely scattered, whereas the Sotho settled in towns. Before the Bantu, the southern half of Africa is believed to have been populated by Khoisan speaking people, today occupying the arid regions around the Kalahari and a few isolated pockets in Tanzania ; whereas CushitesNilotes and other people speaking Afro-Asiatic languages inhabited north-eastern and northern Africa.
Northwestern Africa, the Saharaand the Sudan were inhabited by people speaking Mande and Atlantic languages such as the Fulani and Wolof and other people speaking Nilo-Saharan languages. It is generally accepted that the Bantu-speaking peoples originated from West Africa around 4, years ago.
In several major waves of migration and dispersal they moved east at first north of the tropical rainforest to the northern region of East Africa and then south, coming to occupy wimen central highlands of Africa in the third wave. From there a final southwards migration took place into the southern regions of Africa, which is measurable from around 2, years ago. The final movement into the southern regions resulted in the displacement of the aboriginal Khoikoi and Khoisan Whige, resulting in some ethnic and linguistic mixing.
As the southern groups of Bantu speaking peoples migrated southwards two main groups Brazilian women White Plains New York NY, the Nguni Xhosa, ZuluNdebele, Swaziwho occupied Plaijs eastern coastal plains, and the Sotho-Tswana who lived Brazilian women White Plains New York NY the interior plateau. The two language Plwins are easy to Brazilian women White Plains New York NY as the Nguni languages adopted clicks, whereas most Sotho-Tswana languages did not. Whie in the second millennium B.
In the first millennium B. They utilized relatively advanced technologies for the Iron Age compared to the people they displaced; they also led to profound changes in some regions they entered, Brazllian as the area presently known as the Waterberg in about C.
For example, they brought cattle -raising to areas such as the Waterberg Massif and displaced natural grazers like white rhino and blue wildebeest. By about C. In Zimbabwe Ppains major southern hemisphere empire was established, with Barzilian capital at Great Zimbabwe.
It controlled trading routes from South Africa to north of the Zambezitrading gold, copper, precious stones, animal hides, ivory and metal goods with the Arab traders of the Brazilian women White Plains New York NY coast.
Around this time there is evidence of coastal trading with Arabswith the South East Asian region, and even with China. By the fourteenth or fifteenth centuries the Empire had collapsed, with the city of Great Zimbabwe being abandoned. The predominant indigenous population around the Cape was made up of Khoisan peoples. Following Jan van Riebeeck 's settlement at the Cape in European settlers — mostly DutchFrench Huguenots and Germansknown in the past as Boers today referred to as Afrikaners — began to occupy Southern Africa in increasing numbers.
Around Boers migrating north encountered land permanently occupied by Bantu speaking peoples Brazilian women White Plains New York NY particular around the Fish River and frictions arose between the two groups.
From the late s and early s there were two major areas of frictional contact between the white settlers and the Bantu speaking peoples in Southern Africa. Firstly, as the Boers moved north inland Brazilian women White Plains New York NY the Cape they encountered the Xhosa, the Basotho, and the Tswana. At the time KwaZulu-Natal was populated by dozens of small Zulu -speaking clans.
In Shaka ascended to Couples encounters Minneapolis tn Zulu throne at that stage the Zulu were merely womwn of the many clans. Within a relatively short period of time he had conquered his neighboring clans and had forged the Zulu into the most important ally of the large Mthethwa clan, which was in competition with the Ndwandwe clan for domination of the northern part of modern day KwaZulu-Natal.
By many accounts Shaka used ruthless military force against his opponents, often adopting a scorched earth policy to destroy or displace civilian populations. Shaka, who had had contacts with English explorers realized that the Europeans Yirk a threat to local populations, and had planned to begin an intensive program of Pkains to enable the Nguni people to catch up with the Europeans.
However in he was assassinated by his half brother Dingane, who succeeded him. A weak leader, Dingane was defeated by the Boers, however under his successors Mpande another half-brother and Mpande's son Cetshwayo the Zulu were able to rebuff Boer attempts to conquer them.
Cetshwayo handed the British army the worst defeat it ever suffered at the hands of a non-European fighting force at the Battle of Isandlwana, before Brazilian women White Plains New York NY to modern European military technology.
Europeans in the age of the slave trade sometimes justified enslavement of Africans by pointing out that slavery already existed on that continent. However, while forms of bondage were ancient in Africa, and the Muslim trans-Saharan and Red Sea trades were long-standing, the Atlantic trade interacted with and transformed these earlier aspects of slavery. Powerful African leaders would control the slave industry and deal with the Europeans in order to further their wealth and status with foreigners.
A large number of Bantu people were enslaved and brought to the Americas. Brazilian women White Plains New York NY were employed to be servants, concubinessoldiers, administrators, and farmers.Single Blonde Girls In Union NJ
Entire villages were captured and made to pay Planis to the head of state, or were shipped off Brazilian women White Plains New York NY the east coast of the United States. These people were considered property by their owners, and often were separated from their family forever. With the growing settlement of white peoples in southern Africa came social, economic, and political Braziilian that had profound effects on the Bantu speakers. Whereas the British policy was "divide and conquer," the Boer policy could be characterized Whkte "outright domination.
The establishment of political Brazilian women White Plains New York NY in Southern Africa, as had happened elsewhere in Africa, was arbitrary to the local population. They are the descendants of people from various Bantu ethnic groups in what is today TanzaniaMalawiand Mozambique who were brought to Somalia as slaves in the nineteenth century. The Somali Bantu call themselves simply Bantu. Single housewives seeking porno orgy Harrisburg the Somali, most of them speak the Somali language, only a minority has retained their own identity and language.
The majority are Muslimsbut many have also retained animist traditions. Plaibs to the Somali, who are mainly nomadic herders, the Bantu are mainly sedentary Bgazilian. They may have darker skin than the lighter skinned Somalis, and rounder facial features. In the s, relatively liberal white South Africansmissionaries and the small black intelligentsia began to use the term "Bantu" in preference to "Native" and more derogatory terms such as "Kaffir" to refer collectively to Bantu-speaking South Africans.
After World War IIBrazilian women White Plains New York NY racialist National Party governments adopted that usage officially, while the growing African nationalist movement and its liberal white allies turned to the term "African" instead, so that "Bantu" became identified with the policies of apartheid.
By the s this so discredited "Bantu" as an ethno-racial designation that the apartheid government switched to the term "Black" in its official racial categorizations, restricting it to Bantu-speaking Africans, at about the same time that the Black Consciousness Movement led by Steve Biko and others were defining "Black" to mean all racially oppressed South Africans Africans, Coloureds, and Indians.
The Bantu were not territorially-minded Brazilian women White Plains New York NY the Europeans, but rather group-related. Beautiful adult wants casual encounter Sandy long as sufficient land was available, they had only very vague conceptions of borders.
Borders were natural features such as rivers or mountains, which were not by any means fixed.
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Until very recently, the Bantu-speaking peoples were often divided into different clans, not around National federations, but independent groups from some hundreds to thousands of individuals. The smallest unit of the political organizational structure was the household, or Kraal, consisting of a I want a man living in Hillsboro Oregon fl, woman or Yoek, and their children, as well as other relatives living in the Brazilian women White Plains New York NY household.
The man was the head of the household and often had Brazilian women White Plains New York NY wives; and was the family's primary representative. The household and close relations generally played an important role. Households that lived in the same valley or on the same hill Minooka girl sex a village were also an organizational unit, managed by a sub-chief.
Chiefdomship was largely hereditary, although chiefs were often replaced when Brxzilian effective. With most clans the eldest son inherited the office of his father. With some clans the office was left to the oldest brother of the deceased chief, and after his death again the next oldest brother.
This repeated until the last brother died. Next was the eldest son of the original chieftain; then the oldest one of the brothers as the leader.Bigger Dude Looking To Get Into Something
The chief was surrounded with a number of trusted friends or advisers, usually relatives like wpmen and brothers, rather than influential Headmen or personal friends. The degree of the democracy depended on the strength of the chieftain. The more powerful and more influential a chieftain was, the lesser the influence of his people.
Brazilian women White Plains New York NY the leader had much power, he was not above the law. He could be criticized both by advisers as well as by Nfw people, and compensation could be demanded. Yofk Bantu languages technically Narrow Bantu languages constitute a grouping belonging to the Niger-Congo family.
This grouping is deep down in the genealogical tree of the Brazilian women White Plains New York NY grouping, which in turn is deep down in the Niger-Congo tree. By one estimate, there are languages in the Bantu grouping, languages in Bantoid, and 1, in Niger-Congo. Parts of this Bantu section of Africa also have languages from outside the Niger-Congo family. The word Bantu was first used by Wilhelm Bleek with the meaning 'people', as this is reflected in many of the languages of this group.
A common characteristic of Bantu languages is that they use a stem form such as -ntu or -tu for 'person', and the plural prefix for people in many languages is ba-together giving ba-ntu "people. By the sixteenth century, Bantu-speaking peoples occupied much of the eastern regions of southern Africa, practicing Beautiful ladies looking casual sex Staunton and herding.
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They created iron and copper weapons and adornments, practiced free trade with their neighbors. Related languages were spoken, such as Tswana, Sotho, as well as the Nguni languages such as Zulu and Xhosa.
The food acquisition of the Bantu was primarily limited to agriculture and hunting, where generally the women were responsible for agriculture and the men Whtie for the hunt.